"Retirement is defined as the termination of gainful work that is, of activities one of whose aims is that of obtaining wealth, profit or other social rewards." With this definition, Dr Shenk proceeds with her study of retirement and its effects on a specific ethnic community within the United States, the Lebanese-Americans. While traditional sociocultural attitudes toward aging and the elderly are positive and sympathetic among Lebanese, these attitudes are not necessarily the views of the larger, non-ethnic American population - a situation already setting up contraries in a delicate area. The Lebanese-American, for example, is unhappy with the income social Security payments provide upon retirement in the US: the money is not adequate to support the quality of life these people had expected. For analytic purposes, this study is divided into four phases: (1) preparation and anticipation; (2) the actual moment of withdrawal from the active labour force; (3) initial adjustment to the new way of life; and (4) the patterned, established retirement itself. An important element in all of this is the changing patterns within the host community - the US - where retirement does not necessarily mean the end of useful activities, that the new retiree may very well elect to continue in some active, even gainful activity. Leisure, care of the elderly, mobility, and aging and retirement of women are also discussed - all of this supported by a careful description of the Lebanese in history and as emigrants to America.
China, which is fast on its way to becoming the most powerful economic force in the world, has four unique characteristics that distinguish it from other countries in Asia: (1) The proportion of aging population is growing faster than that of Japan (the country previously recognized as having the fastest rate) and much faster than nations in western Europe. (2) An early arrival of an aging population before modernization has fully taken place, with social policy implications. It is certain that China will face a severely aged population before it has sufficient time and resources to establish an adequate social security and service system for older people. (3) There will be fluctuations in the total dependency ratio. The Chinese government estimates are that the country will reach a higher dependent burden earlier in the twenty-first century than was previously forecast. (4) The government s fertility policy (single child per family) and its implementation has a strong influence on the aging process. Fewer children are being born, but with more elderly people a conflict arises between the objectives to limit population increase and yet maintain a balanced age structure (Peng and Guo 2001). The intersection of these fourfold factors means that the increased aging population is giving rise to serious concerns among Chinese social policy makers. There is a chronic lack of good resource materials that attempt to make sense of social policy in its relationship to examining the problems and possibilities of human aging grounded in an analysis of economic of social policy in China and impact on rural and urban spaces. Such analysis of China will be covered by conceptual, theoretical, and empirical approaches. The book will also discuss substantive topics of housing, community care, family care, pensions, and mental health. The book brings together a truly world class array of researchers to provide discussions of critical implications of aging social policy and the economic impact in China."
This book offers an easy-to-use and practice-oriented reference guide to mathematical averages. It presents different ways of aggregating input values given on a numerical scale, and of choosing and/or constructing aggregating functions for specific applications. Building on a previous monograph by Beliakov et al. published by Springer in 2007, it outlines new aggregation methods developed in the interim, with a special focus on the topic of averaging aggregation functions. It examines recent advances in the field, such as aggregation on lattices, penalty-based aggregation and weakly monotone averaging, and extends many of the already existing methods, such as: ordered weighted averaging (OWA), fuzzy integrals and mixture functions. A substantial mathematical background is not called for, as all the relevant mathematical notions are explained here and reported on together with a wealth of graphical illustrations of distinct families of aggregation functions. The authors mainly focus on practical applications and give central importance to the conciseness of exposition, as well as the relevance and applicability of the reported methods, offering a valuable resource for computer scientists, IT specialists, mathematicians, system architects, knowledge engineers and programmers, as well as for anyone facing the issue of how to combine various inputs into a single output value.
Medicaid is the largest grant-in-aid program in the United States. Reform in this area, therefore, provides a unique opportunity to study the intersection between federal and state policy making in an area recently characterized by substantial uncertainty deriving from the lingering effects of the Great Recession, ongoing debate over the federal budget, and implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. Invariably states reform the way health care is delivered, regulated, and financed within broader parameters established by federal statutes and regulations. It is critical therefore that effective strategies be put into place if both current and future health and long-term care reform efforts are to have their greatest chances at success. Rhode Island is the first state to receive permission to operate its entire Medicaid program under a global cap. As a consequence, it has entered the national consciousness as a key data point potentially supporting the block grant approach to Medicaid reform.
In this book, Edward Alan Miller identifies factors that either facilitated or impeded the design and implementation of Rhode Island's Global Consumer Choice Compact Medicaid Waiver in order to draw broader lessons for the Medicaid block grant debate and health and long-term care reform more generally. Evidence gathered from archival sources and in-depth interviews with key stakeholders exposes the role that provider capacity has played in the implementation process, including adult day care, assisted living, home maker, and other home- and community-based services. The impact of the Global Waiver on the nursing home sector is examined as well, in addition to new authority to obtain federal matching dollars for previously state-only funded programs.
By providing a sophisticated understanding of factors enhancing or impeding state health reform, this book will contribute to improvements in the development and administration of policy development at both the state- and federal-levels.
This book considers the current domestic and global political and economic landscape and will show that there are three different but related kinds of leverage that together have emerged as the dominant strategy in economics, politics and international relations. The economic crisis of 2008-09 was called by most economists a crisis of "over-leverage." Yet no one has argued that there has also been a leverage crisis or at least a "leverage challenge," in other aspects of life. The This book argues that there is a "leverage mean" in between the extremes of too little leverage and too much leverage that provides the basis for resolving the various crises and challenges. This book, which grows out of a Brookings Institution paper "The Age of Leverage," will analyze bargaining leverage, resource leverage and economic investment leverage and should draw the attention of students and teachers in political and economic philosophy.
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